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5 ways to start a story: Choosing a bold beginning

Great authors show us there are many ways to start a story. You could begin a novel with a narrator/character introducing himself, like Salingers Holden Caufield or Dickens David Copperfield. Or you could begin in the thick of action, as Ray Bradburys does in his classic novel, Fahrenheit 451.

Great authors show us there are many ways to start a story. You could begin a novel with a narrator/character introducing himself, like Salingers Holden Caufield or Dickens David Copperfield. Or you could begin in the thick of action, asRay Bradburys does in his classic novel,Fahrenheit 451.

These five types of story beginnings work:

Watch the summary video on ways to begin stories now, then read discussion of the story beginnings below:

This is a popular way to start a story about a character coming of ageor grappling with internal conflict. These novels typically use first person narration. From the first line, the reader gets to know a characterful narrator.

For example, Salingers Holden Caulfield inThe Catcher in the Rye(1951) has a strong voice and clear, disaffected teen persona:

If you really want to hear about it, the first thing youll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I dont feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth.

This opening is effective because we get a strong sense of the characters personality in his terse use of curse words, slang and adjectives (crap, lousy). Being addressed directly by the narrator creates a sense of closeness and familiarity. This effect issimilar to Charlotte BrontesReader, I married him inJane Eyre.

Another strong example of this story opening type, the protagonist/narrator introduction, is Vladimir NabokovsLolita(1955). Nabokov begins his novel with his depraved anti-hero, Humbert Humbert, musing on the name of Lolita, the young object of his obsession:

Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins. My sin, my soul. Lo-lee-ta: the tip of the tongue taking a trip of three steps down the palate to tap, at three, on the teeth. Lo. Lee. Ta.

Nabokovs opening is strong because personality and character psychology are present from the first line.

When youstart a story with your main characterintroducing themselves, remember to:

The grandiose language of Humbert Humbert fits the character, asdo Salingers teens own cynical words.

Show what matters to your character/narrator from the start:

Holden values authenticity (if you want to know the truth). We get a visceral sense of Humberts creepy obsession with Lolita through his rapture at even saying her name.

Often novels open with narrators recalling memories that arecore to the plot. This is one of the ways to start a story that enables you to build on a strong hook.

Starting with memories requires knowing your character well, such as how their backstory guides their goals, motivations and potential conflicts.

This is especially common in novels where a single, unforgettable event casts its shadow over the rest of the book (e.g. the murder in a murder mystery).

Framing an event in your story through a characters memory gives it weight.When you begin your novel with your main character remembering an earlier scene, its thus important to choose the right scene. Asnovel writing coachRomy Sommer says:

An issue I see with a lot of beginner writers is they tend to write the backstory as the story itself that backstory is usually you as the writer writing it for yourself so you can understand the characters.

Choose a scene that shows adilemma or choice, or a powerfully emotional experiencethat is bound to have consequences for yourcharacter.

For example, Mark HaddonsThe Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-timeopens with the 15-year-old narrator Christopher finding his neighbours murdered dog:

It was 7 minutes after midnight. The dog was lying on the grass in the middle of the lawn in front of Mrs Shears house. Its eyes were closed. It looked as if it was running on its side, the way dogs run when they think theyre chasing a cat in a dream. But the dog was not running or asleep. The dog was dead. There was a garden fork sticking out of the dog.

Haddons opening is effective because it builds up to the revelation that the dog was killed violently. Its effective because it raises questions we want answered.

When you begin with your narrator recalling a key memory, remember to:

Choose a scene that immediately starts giving the reader keys to understanding:

Haddons narrator proceeds to hug the bleeding dog, for example, so that we start to realise that Christopher is unusual in some way.

Haddon does not just say Christopher found his neighbours dog, killed with a garden fork. We discover the dog through Christophers eyes, and this increases the scenes impact.

Brainstorm great ideas and get feedback on your first line in critique groups

A little bit of mystery or confusion at the start of your novel can help to reel readers in.

At the same time, make sure your opening isnt so mystifying that the reader bails in frustration.

Even if the purpose or reasons for yourambiguous opening arent clear at first,the action itself must sustain readers interestuntil there is more clarity.

Consider the opening of Ray BradburysFahrenheit 451:

It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed. With the brass nozzle in his fists, with this great python spitting its venemous kerosene upon the world, the blood pounded in his head, and his hands were the hands of some amazing conductor playing all the symphonies of blazing and burning to bring down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history.

The first sentence is ambiguous who, or what, is burning? The next slowly fills in context: We learn a character is using kerosene to burn something, to destroy history, but we still dont know what exactly. We only learn by the end of the paragraph that the character Montag is burning books.

This way of beginning a story is effective because Bradbury prolongs a mixture of suspense and confusion, yet the characters action itself is clear.

If you begin a book with ambiguous, teasing action:

Give the reader answers to at least one (or some) of the 5 ws. We might not immediately know

theyre burning), but Bradbury gives us a strong

: Pleasure. The relish with which Montag burns the books is clear

By the end of the first paragraph, give the reader a little more clarity, as Bradbury does

Prologue literally means the before word. This separate introductory or prefatory section in a novel has several uses:

Giving broad historical context that paves the way for the main story

Showing a scene or event preceding the main narrative, whose consequences ripple through the following story

Donna Tartt uses the second type of prologue to excellent effect in her mystery novelThe Secret History. Her prologue tells us that a character is murdered, that the narrator is somehow complicit, and that he will narrate the events that led up to the murder in the coming narrative.

This teaser makes it clear that motive, rather than identity, is the main mystery behind the killing.

Tarttsprologue wastes no time in revealing key informationthat shapes our expectations for the main story:

The snow in the mountains was melting and Bunny had been dead for several weeks before we came to understand the gravity of our situation. Hed been dead for ten days before they found him, you know.

By immediately framing the story around Bunnys murder and its aftermath, Tartts prologue directs our attention to the ground the coming story will cover. Not the fact of Bunnys death but the swirl of events that spin out from this crime. It marks outa path into reading and making sense of thestory.

Do you want toinclude a prologue in your book? Ask:

Do the events in the first part of your book need telling explaining prior events?

In Tartts case, giving away key events in the prologue is smart, structurally. Because the identity of the murder victim (and at least one person responsible) is revealed early, the main narrative of the story is free to focus on character motivations and consequences and not justcrime-solving.

Would your story flow better if you told earlier events via character flashbacks or a prologue?

Try writing a scene as a prologue, then write the same scene as a flashback. Which fits the scene better?

If youre unsure how to start your novel, ourwriting coacheswill help you get on track.

The mostmemorable story openingssurprise us and make us pause for a moment.

Take Bradburys beginning toFahrenheit 451above, It was a pleasure to burn. Its unexpected.

This is partially because of its inner contradiction. We know that getting a burn from a hot plate is painful, and the idea of pleasure is thus surprising.

The ambiguity of it means we dont know initially whether the narrator is describing an odd pleasure in burning himselfor burning something else.

Examples from famous books revealthis has always been one of the popular ways to start a story. For example, Dodie Smith opensI Capture the Castle(1949):

I write this sitting in the kitchen sink.

The narrator Cassandras choice of sitting place is unusual, intriguing us to read the next sentence. Whichever way you choose to begin your novel, getting the reader to read the second sentence is the first, crucialfeat.

Start your own novel now:brainstorm story themes, settings and charactersand get helpful feedback from the Now Novel community.

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ways to start a story. story beginnings

Jordan is a writer, editor, community manager and product developer. He received his BA Honours in English Literature and his undergraduate in English Literature and Music from the University of Cape Town.

This tips were quite helpful. Though, I still have a few holes on how to start my story.

Thank you for sharing that, Georgina. What are there holes around? You might findthis article on how to avoid plot holeshelpful.

As a student and teacher of English, I had to read, write and teach a number of stories. I learnt about the essential plot parts, techniques, character-development and so on.

The problem with me, while writing my own stories, I forgot mostly what I had learnt about story writing. I thought I was writing some really interesting stories though.

I started sending my stories to online, offline magazines, started participating in Flash Fiction Contests where I had my fellow writers commenting on my stories. I felt that I could consider myself to be a competent writer. But arent competent, capable writers supposed to have name and fame? Arent they supposed to be rich?

Even after having written over 500 short stories, forget about being rich, I wasnt even earning a penny?

If I dont get published, if I dont get paid by writing, am I going to die an unfulfilled writer? These questions have become paramount in my mind lately. In my early 60s, I am not sure any more if writing is the thing for someone like me with very little economic freedom. Writing is reaching a point in my retired life when it is not sheer fun anymore.

My question to you is, would you still advise me to continue writing? Do you still think that there is a flicker of light at the end of the tunnel?

Hi Rathin, thank you for sharing this personal account of your writing path. I would say it depends on your aims. To make money from writing, it is crucial to approach it as a business and do careful market research, invest time in marketing your work, and use every available resource (social media, Amazon author pages (if youre listing work there), Goodreads, and other places such as book fairs to build an audience interested in what you have to say.

This being said, writing is lucrative for very few writers and many support their writing with side hustles. Fame and riches are goals beyond ones immediate control, there being so many variable factors involved in earning them, so I would always advocate writing for passion and the pleasure of creation and communication above money or fame.

It is challenging to have very little economic freedom as you describe, as that makes writing more of a luxury if it isnt contributing income. Approaching it as a pleasure and an escape into creation rather than putting financial pressure on the process may be best for keeping the joy of it alive, though (one can do commercial writing such as copywriting for money as it tends to pay better per hours invested). I hope this is helpful, it is of course a highly subjective perspective.

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