The True-Life Horror That Inspired Moby-Dick
was indeed sunk by a whaleand thats only the beginning
In July of 1852, a 32-year-old novelist named Herman Melville had high hopes for his new novel,Moby-Dick; or, The Whale, despite the books mixed reviews and tepid sales. That month he took a steamer to Nantucket for his first visit to the Massachusetts island, home port of his novels mythic protagonist, Captain Ahab, and his ship, thePequod. Like a tourist, Melville met local dignitaries, dined out and took in the sights of the village he had previously only imagined.
And on his last day on Nantucket he met the broken-down 60-year-old man who had captained theEssex, the ship that had been attacked and sunk by a sperm whale in an 1820 incident that had inspired Melvilles novel. Captain George Pollard Jr. was just 29 years old when theEssexwent down, and he survived and returned to Nantucket to captain a second whaling ship,Two Brothers. But when that ship wrecked on a coral reef two years later, the captain was marked as unlucky at seaa Jonahand no owner would trust a ship to him again. Pollard lived out his remaining years on land, as the village night watchman.
Melville had written about Pollard briefly inMoby-Dick, and only with regard to the whale sinking his ship. During his visit, Melville later wrote, the two merely exchanged some words. But Melville knew Pollards ordeal at sea did not end with the sinking of theEssex, and he was not about to evoke the horrific memories that the captain surely carried with him. To the islanders he was a nobody, Melville wrote, to me, the most impressive man, tho wholly unassuming, even humblethat I ever encountered.
Pollard had told the full story to fellow captains over a dinner shortly after his rescue from theEssexordeal, and to a missionary named George Bennet. To Bennet, the tale was like a confession. Certainly, it was grim: 92 days and sleepless nights at sea in a leaking boat with no food, his surviving crew going mad beneath the unforgiving sun, eventual cannibalism and the harrowing fate of two teenage boys, including Pollards first cousin, Owen Coffin. But I can tell you no moremy head is on fire at the recollection, Pollard told the missionary. I hardly know what I say.
The trouble forEssexbegan, as Melville knew, on August 14, 1819, just two days after it left Nantucket on a whaling voyage that was supposed to last two and a half years. The 87-foot-long ship was hit by a squall that destroyed its topgallant sail and nearly sank it. Still, Pollard continued, making it to Cape Horn five weeks later. But the 20-man crew found the waters off South America nearly fished out, so they decided to sail for distant whaling grounds in the South Pacific, far from any shores.
To restock, theEssexanchored at Charles Island in the Galapagos, where the crew collected sixty 100-pound tortoises. As a prank, one of the crew set a fire, which, in the dry season, quickly spread. Pollards men barely escaped, having to run through flames, and a day after they set sail, they could still see smoke from the burning island. Pollard was furious, and swore vengeance on whoever set the fire. Many years later Charles Island was still a blackened wasteland, and the fire was believed to have caused the extinction of both the Floreana Tortoise and the Floreana Mockingbird.
EssexFirst Mate Owen Chase, later in life. Photo: Wikimedia Commons
By November of 1820, after months of a prosperous voyage and a thousand miles from the nearest land, whaleboats from theEssexhad harpooned whales that dragged them out toward the horizon in what the crew called Nantucket sleigh rides. Owen Chase, the 23-year-old first mate, had stayed aboard theEssexto make repairs while Pollard went whaling. It was Chase who spotted a very big whale85 feet in length, he estimatedlying quietly in the distance, its head facing the ship. Then, after two or three spouts, the giant made straight for theEssex, coming down for us at great celerity, Chase would recallat about three knots. The whale smashed head-on into the ship with such an appalling and tremendous jar, as nearly threw us all on our faces.
The whale passed underneath the ship and began thrashing in the water. I could distinctly see him smite his jaws together, as if distracted with rage and fury, Chase recalled. Then the whale disappeared. The crew was addressing the hole in the ship and getting the pumps working when one man cried out, Here he ishe is making for us again. Chase spotted the whale, his head half out of water, bearing down at great speedthis time at six knots, Chase thought. This time it hit the bow directly under the cathead and disappeared for good.
The water rushed into the ship so fast, the only thing the crew could do was lower the boats and try fill them with navigational instruments, bread, water and supplies before theEssexturned over on its side.
Pollard saw his ship in distress from a distance, then returned to see theEssexin ruin. Dumbfounded, he asked, My God, Mr. Chase, what is the matter?
We have been stove by a whale, his first mate answered.
Another boat returned, and the men sat in silence, their captain still pale and speechless. Some, Chase observed, had no idea of the extent of their deplorable situation.
The men were unwilling to leave the doomedEssexas it slowly foundered, and Pollard tried to come up with a plan. In all, there were three boats and 20 men. They calculated that the closest land was the Marquesas Islands and the Society Islands, and Pollard wanted to set off for thembut in one of the most ironic decisions in nautical history, Chase and the crew convinced him that those islands were peopled with cannibals and that the crews best chance for survival would be to sail south. The distance to land would be far greater, but they might catch the trade winds or be spotted by another whaling ship. Only Pollard seemed to understand the implications of steering clear of the islands. (According to Nathaniel Philbrick, in his bookIn the Heart of the Sea: The Tragedy of the Whaleship Essex,although rumors of cannibalism persisted, traders had been visiting the islands without incident.)
Thus they left theEssexaboard their 20-foot boats. They were challenged almost from the start. Saltwater saturated the bread, and the men began to dehydrate as they ate their daily rations. The sun was ravaging. Pollards boat was attacked by a killer whale. They spotted landHenderson Islandtwo weeks later, but it was barren. After another week the men began to run out of supplies. Still, three of them decided theyd rather take their chances on land than climb back into a boat. No one could blame them. And besides, it would stretch the provisions for the men in the boats.
Herman Melville drew inspiration forMoby-Dickfrom the 1820 whale attack on theEssex. Photo: Wikimedia Commons
By mid-December, after weeks at sea, the boats began to take on water, more whales menaced the men at night, and by January, the paltry rations began to take their toll. On Chases boat, one man went mad, stood up and demanded a dinner napkin and water, then fell into most horrid and frightful convulsions before perishing the next morning. Humanity must shudder at the dreadful recital of what came next, Chase wrote. The crew separated limbs from his body, and cut all the flesh from the bones; after which, we opened the body, took out the heart, and then closed it againsewed it up as decently as we could, and committed it to the sea. They then roasted the mans organs on a flat stone and ate them.
Over the coming week, three more sailors died, and their bodies were cooked and eaten. One boat disappeared, and then Chases and Pollards boats lost sight of each other. The rations of human flesh did not last long, and the more the survivors ate, the hungrier they felt. On both boats the men became too weak to talk. The four men on Pollards boat reasoned that without more food, they would die. On February 6, 1821nine weeks after theyd bidden farewell to theEssexCharles Ramsdell, a teenager, proposed they draw lots to determine who would be eaten next. It was the custom of the sea, dating back, at least in recorded instance, to the first half of the 17th century. The men in Pollards boat accepted Ramsdells suggestion, and the lot fell to young Owen Coffin, the captains first cousin.
Pollard had promised the boys mother hed look out for him. My lad, my lad! the captain now shouted, if you dont like your lot, Ill shoot the first man that touches you. Pollard even offered to step in for the boy, but Coffin would have none of it. I like it as well as any other, he said.
Ramsdell drew the lot that required him to shoot his friend. He paused a long time. But then Coffin rested his head on the boats gunwale and Ramsdell pulled the trigger.
He was soon dispatched, Pollard would say, and nothing of him left.
By February 18, after 89 days at sea, the last three men on Chases boat spotted a sail in the distance. After a frantic chase, they managed to catch the English shipIndianand were rescued.
Three hundred miles away, Pollards boat carried only its captain and Charles Ramsdell. They had only the bones of the last crewmen to perish, which they smashed on the bottom of the boat so that they could eat the marrow. As the days passed the two men obsessed over the bones scattered on the boats floor. Almost a week after Chase and his men had been rescued, a crewman aboard the American shipDauphinspotted Pollards boat. Wretched and confused, Pollard and Ramsdell did not rejoice at their rescue, but simply turned to the bottom of their boat and stuffed bones into their pockets. Safely aboard theDauphin, the two delirious men were seen sucking the bones of their dead mess mates, which they were loath to part with.
The fiveEssexsurvivors were reunited in Valparaiso, where they recuperated before sailing back for Nantucket. As Philbrick writes, Pollard had recovered enough to join several captains for dinner, and he told them the entire story of theEssexwreck and his three harrowing months at sea. One of the captains present returned to his room and wrote everything down, calling Pollards account the most distressing narrative that ever came to my knowledge.
Years later, the third boat was discovered on Ducie Island; three skeletons were aboard. Miraculously, the three men who chose to stay on Henderson Island survived for nearly four months, mostly on shellfish and bird eggs, until an Australian ship rescued them.
Once they arrived in Nantucket, the surviving crewmen of theEssexwere welcomed, largely without judgment. Cannibalism in the most dire of circumstances, it was reasoned, was a custom of the sea. (In similar incidents, survivors declined to eat the flesh of the dead but used it as bait for fish. But Philbrick notes that the men of theEssexwere in waters largely devoid of marine life at the surface.)
Captain Pollard, however, was not as easily forgiven, because he had eaten his cousin. (One scholar later referred to the act as gastronomic incest.) Owen Coffins mother could not abide being in the captains presence. Once his days at sea were over, Pollard spent the rest of his life in Nantucket. Once a year, on the anniversary of the wreck of theEssex, he was said to have locked himself in his room and fasted in honor of his lost crewmen.
By 1852, Melville andMoby-Dickhad begun their own slide into obscurity. Despite the authors hopes, his book sold but a few thousand copies in his lifetime, and Melville, after a few more failed attempts at novels, settled into a reclusive life and spent 19 years as a customs inspector in New York City. He drank and suffered the death of his two sons. Depressed, he abandoned novels for poetry. But George Pollards fate was never far from his mind. In his poemClarelhe writes of
Watching the bales till morning hour
Through fair and foul. Never he smiled;
Call him, and he would come; not sour
Oft on some secret thing would brood.
Books:Herman Melville,Moby-Dick; Or, The Whale, 1851, Harper & Brothers Publishers. Nathaniel Philbrick,In the Heart of the Sea: The Tragedy of the Whaleship Essex, 2000, Penguin Books. Thomas Nickerson,The Loss of the Ship Essex, Sunk by a Whale, 2000, Penguin Classics. Owen Chase,Narrative of the Whale-Ship Essex of Nantucket, 2006, A RIA Press Edition. Alex MacCormick,The Mammoth Book of Maneaters, 2003, Carroll & Graf Publishers. Joseph S. Cummins,Cannibals: Shocking True Tales of the Last Taboo on Land and at Sea, 2001, The Lyons Press. Evan L. Balkan,Shipwrecked: Deadly Adventures and Disasters at Sea, 2008, Menasha Ridge Press.
Articles:The Whale and the Horror, by Nathaniel Philbrick,Vanity Fair, May, 2000. Herman Melville: Nantuckets First Tourist? by Susan Beegel, The Nantucket Historical Association, Herman Melville and Nantucket, The Nantucket Historical Association, Into the Deep: America, Whaling & the World, Biography: Herman Melville,American Experience, , No Moby-Dick: A Real Captain, Twice Doomed, by Jesse McKinley,New York Times, February 11, 2011. The Essex Disaster, by Walter Karp,American Heritage, April/May, 1983, Volume 34, Issue 3. Essex (whaleship), Wikipedia, Account of the ShipEssexSinking, 1819-1821., Thomas Nickerson,
Gilbert King is a contributing writer in history for . His bookDevil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New Americawon the Pulitzer Prize in 2013.
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